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What is an IPO?

IPO, an abbreviation for Initial Public Offering, becomes a turning point for a company, which shifts from being private to being public ownership by selling shares to investors on the stock market. It is practically the same as the grand entrance of a company in the finance stage, where it attracts attention from investors, analysts and media. On the one hand, IPOs are critical for companies intending to raise capital for expansion and growth while at the same time allowing investors to own a stake in an exciting opportunity. Therefore, this article will explore what an IPO really means and why it is such a big deal in finance.

Understanding IPO

IPO means Initial Public Offering. Initial Public Offer (IPO) can be defined as the process by which a private company or corporation may decide to become public by selling off a portion of its stake to investors. An IPO is usually initiated for fresh equity capital into a firm, easy trade on existing assets, raising funds for the future or monetising investments made by existing stakeholders. The institutional investors, high net worth individuals (HNIs) and the public can access the details of the first sale of shares in the prospectus. The prospectus is a long document that includes information about the proposed offering. Once an Initial Public Offering has been accomplished, the shares of a company become listed and freely traded on an open market. The stock exchange has a minimum free float requirement both in absolute terms and as a percentage of total share capital.

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How Does Initial Public Offering Work?

Introducing an IPO into the market is a major step for any business and offers a chance for growth and expansion, as well as increasing the company's visibility. By understanding every single step of the process in detail, companies may put themselves in good stead to be successful in the ever-changing world of public markets. Here's a concise explanation of how it works:


The company works with investment banks to get ready for an initial public offering. In this case, they conduct a comprehensive analysis of the enterprise's finances and operations, a process commonly referred to as due diligence. Moreover, the company drafts a prospectus that explains its business and details the proposed share offer. Marketing efforts are put in place during this stage to stir up interest among potential investors.


The investment banks perform underwriting functions on IPOs. They pledge to buy every single share that is offered and resell it back into the market. They also do their own assessment called due diligence to establish how much each unit will be sold at.


The company floats shares to the general public in the primary market. In doing so, it means that never before have these shares been available for purchase by the public. The sale proceeds go directly to the firm, which can now be used as working capital or even to repay debts and fund future expansion.


After going public through an IPO, a company's shares get listed on a stock exchange. As such these shares become tradable in other markets called secondary market platforms. Furthermore, it does not benefit much from this since no money goes to the actual firm during these deals but only liquidity is provided for shareholders.

Exit Strategy

Most of the time, an IPO acts as an exit strategy for the founders of companies and their early investors. They can sell them through the open market or other ways, thus getting high returns from this investment capital. This is especially true if what they invested in has appreciated significantly over time.

Considerations Before Investing in an IPO

Investing in an initial public offering can be the best chance, but one should do research into this. Here are some of the key factors to consider:

  • Read the Prospectus A Red Herring Prospectus is required by every company going public. It contains information about market vision, founders, promoters, growth prospects, structuring, and so on.
  • Objective and Purpose of the IPO Evaluate the company's objective and what it intends to do with the proceeds in future. Investing in companies that use proceeds for existing debt settlements is not recommended.
  • Company’s Financials The financials of a company are the only trustworthy data with which to decide whether you should continue with an IPO or not. Some things to look out for include continuous upward trends in revenue, good cash reserves, profitable growth, and low debt ratios.
  • Public Demand for the IPO Consider public demand for the IPO. High demand may mean a successful IPO. However, it must be ensured that this is not mere hype.
  • Growth Prospect of the Company Look at how fast a company can grow, industry trends and its financial performance.
  • Financial Valuation Ratios Assess financial valuation ratios. These can help determine if there is fair pricing of an IPO.
  • Risk Tolerance & Financial Goals Understand your risk tolerance and financial goals. Investments in IPOs always come with risks; hence, they need to match your financial objectives.
  • Reason for Going Public Establish why the company wants to go public. This would give insights into the business strategy and future plans of the firm.

What We Offers

  • Bigul offers a platform for Ongoing and upcoming IPO
  • For all new upcoming IPO details, just click here
  • Post-IPO service in case of any deviation.
  • Regular updates and analysis on market trends and investment opportunities.
  • Dedicated customer support to help you throughout your investment journey.

Purpose of IPO

The main and core purpose of an initial public offering (IPO) is to raise capital and funding by offering shares of the company to the public for the first time. It is important for companies to list on an exchange. However, IPOs provide liquidity to existing shareholders, improve the company's visibility and credibility, and serve as a means to access a broader investor base. By public offering, companies can expand funds for research and acquisitions, while shareholders can monetise their investments. The process also allows companies to attract talented employees through equity-based incentives. In a nutshell, IPOs play a crucial role in the overall growth of the organisation, diversification of services and products, and strategic development for companies in the public markets.

Who is it for?

An Initial Public Offering (IPO) primarily targets two key groups: companies and investors. For companies, particularly private ones, seeking to expand, raise capital, increase visibility, or provide liquidity for existing shareholders, an IPO represents an important financial event. It offers a crucial way to convert from private to public ownership, enabling access to public markets and potential investors. The investors, both individual and institutional, are the primary beneficiaries of IPOs, presenting them with an opportunity to invest in newly listed companies. This enables investors to achieve potentially significant returns by participating in the growth trajectory of these companies from an early stage of their public life.

Types of IPO

There are two main categories of IPOs. These include:

  • Fixed Price Offering: Fixed Price IPO is the initial share sales offered by some companies at a predetermined price. The company's decision about the price of these publicly traded shares notifies investors. Once the offering closes, one can determine the market demand for its stock. When investors participate in this IPO they have to pay a cash amount equal to full face value of shares at the application stage.
  • Book Building Offering: In book building, a 20% price band on shares is given to investors by a company seeking an IPO. Before determining final prices, intending investors would tender for their shares. For instance, an investor must indicate how many shares he intends buying and how much he wants to buy each share at. The lowest cost per unit set of stocks is known as floor price while cap rate stands for highest amount per share. Investors' bids will determine what price any stocks will ultimately be sold at.

Benefits of Investing in an IPO

The following are the advantages associated with investing in Initial Public Offerings

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Increased Recognition

When considering the pros and cons of an IPO, this is a plus sign that tips the scale. It helps management to build its reputation as a credible entity by making it trustworthy. Publicly traded companies, in general, are more famous compared to their private counterparts. Moreover, a successful operation will attract media attention in financial markets.


Access to Capital

Through going public no company has ever received more funds than it raised. The huge cash available may greatly change the course of a company's growth. A forward-looking enterprise may enter into another era of financial stability after floating shares on the exchange. This move can help research and development, hire additional workers, develop facilities, retire debts, finance capital projects, or buy new technology among other such things.



Investing in IPOs allows diversified investor exposure to industries or sectors that do not have a presence in their portfolio. By reaching out to companies at their early stage, investors can offset risks by spreading investments across various sectors, thereby reducing overall market risk. Diversification can help mitigate the effect of negative events in one industry by balancing it with gains in others. This is an essential strategy in risk management and returns optimisation as it ensures that a client's portfolio does not depend heavily on the performance of only one industry or sector.

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Management Discipline

Being an investor in an IPO enforces managerial discipline. Becoming public encourages profit making and financial performance, leading executives to prioritise shareholder value and efficiency for operations. Additionally, public firms experience increased scrutiny and accountability which foster open corporate governance practices.

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External Point of View

Ultimately, investing in an IPO provides companies with a valuable third-party perspective. Going public contributes to the evaluation of a company's business model, strategy, and performance, hence giving direction for strategic decisions. Furthermore, market response to an IPO, together with investor interest, is an external endorsement of the firm's worth proposition, signalling a continuous growth path as well as prosperity beyond that stage.


In conclusion, Initial Public Offerings (IPOs) are a transition for companies from private to public ownership, offering opportunities for growth, expansion, and increased visibility in the financial markets. IPOs serve as a means for companies to raise capital, provide liquidity for existing shareholders, and access a broader investor base. IPOs offer an exciting investment opportunity with the potential for high returns and early involvement in promising firms. However, it is important to conduct thorough research and assess the risks before diving in. Remember, a wise move leads to better results. If you are new to the world of investments or need help enhancing your knowledge, consider using Bigul, which is a friendly stockbroker. We believe that learning is most important before earning, so we offer a great platform for you to learn before investing in the stock market. By using Bigul, you can gain valuable insights and make informed decisions that will be a rewarding investment journey.

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Discover all you need to know effortlessly with our frequently asked questions—your go-to resource for answers.

When a private corporation, which has not been open to the public before, offers shares for sale and lets investors purchase some parts of it, this is called an IPO (Initial Public Offerings).

The reasons why companies prefer going public through an Initial Public Offering are often raising capital for expansion, funding research and development, retiring debt or offering liquidity to existing shareholders.

Usually, the prices of IPOs are determined by valuation; investment banks and underwriters scrutinise the financial statements of the business, market conditions, and investor demand to set an initial offering price.

Even though any member of the investing public can participate in an IPO directly, allocations can be difficult to obtain. Generally, institutional investors, including large clients of underwriters, receive priority on specific tranches, while individual investors can access these securities via brokerage firms.

There is risk involved with purchasing stock during this period. There might be market volatility and uncertainty regarding future performance, among other things, that may lead the buyer to loss if it's acquired at a higher cost than its face value because the price decreases soon after such sales. It is important for investors to conduct their own thorough research and evaluate their risk tolerance before participating in an Initial Public Offering.

Investors can participate in IPOs by clicking here  and applying for the same.

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